One of the earliest human civilizations formed in Egypt about 5,000 years ago. It was centered on the Nile River. The land around the Nile was very fertile because the river flooded every year. During the floods, the river left rich topsoil and silt on the land. This let farmers grow many crops. Soon, Egypt had a large population.
Ancient Egypt was ruled by pharaohs. They were kings, but people believed the pharaohs were descended from gods. As god-kings, the pharaohs ruled over the Egyptians, who were slaves.
The ancient Egyptians were great engineers and builders. They built enormous pyramids that were tombs for the pharaohs. They also built the Sphinx near the pyramids. And they constructed many other stone temples and monuments throughout the land.
The ancient Egyptians developed a writing system called hieroglyphics. It used pictures and symbols that represented ideas, sound, and objects. Hieroglyphics were carved on walls and monuments.